Mucosal Immunoregulation: Environmental Lipopolysaccharide and GALT T Lymphocytes Regulate the IgA Response

Jerry R. McGhee, Suzanne M. Michalek, Hiroshi Kiyono, John H. Eldridge, Dawn E. Colwell, Shane I. Williamson, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Emilio Jirillo, Lisa M. Mosteller, David M. Spalding, Shigeyuki Hamada, Katherine A. Gollahon, Ichijiro Morisaki, Richard L. Gregory, William J. Koopman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


In this review, we have emphasized: 1) bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) involvement in IgA responses to orally administered thymic-dependent (TD) antigens; 2) characterization of Peye’s patch (PP) lymphoreticular cells; and 3) gastrointestinal immunization with gram negative pathogens and anti-LPS immunity to infection. Gut LPS, which interacts with PP lymphoreticular cells, is a major determinant for host responses to orally administered TD antigens. Bacteroides species are the principal microflora present in the gastrointestinal tract and our studies with phenol-water LPS extracts from Bacteroides fragilis indicate that both polysaccharide and lipid A activate lymphoreticular cells. The B. fragilis lipid A moiety, like that derived from E. coli and Salmonella LPS, induces B cell mitogenic responses in cultures from LPS responsive mice, but does not stimulate C3H/HeJ B cells. The inability of lipid A to stimulate gut-associated lymphoreticular tissue (GALT) cells of C3H/HeJ mice results in the induction of greater T helper cell activity in this tissue in response to orally administered TD antigens and ultimately results in an elevated IgA response pattern.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-280
Number of pages20
JournalMicrobiology and Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1984

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Virology

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