Multi-photon microscopy: Linking drug mechanism to disease physiology

Brian W. Grinnell, Akanksha Gupta, Ruben M. Sandoval, Bruce A. Molitoris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Scopus citations


While intravital microscopy has been a valuable tool of the cell biologist for many years, its capabilities have been significantly advanced with the recent development of multi-photon microscopy. When combined with specialized methods of small animal surgery, intravital multi-photon microscopy provides the ability to quantify the cellular and subcellular distribution of drugs and to directly measure physiological processes in internal organs such as the liver, kidney, intestine and brain. Intravital multi-photon microscopy combines the resolution of microscopy with the relevance of in vivo imaging, resulting in studies that yield unique insights into the effects and distribution of pharmaceutical compounds, and studies that may better predict product safety and efficacy. Advancements in many areas of microscopy, probe development, software and hardware development have occurred to enable the present state technology, and the ability to apply these to in vivo study represents a new era in biology and pharmacology that will lead to enhanced understanding of physiologic and disease processes. In summary, multi-photon microscopy holds great promise to the biopharmaceutical industry by allowing a better link between in vitro biology and in vivo disease pathophysiology, which will hopefully increase the translation of preclinical drug evaluation to clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Pharmaceutical Review
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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