Rationale: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence continues to increase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States, reaching 26.5% in 2012. Approximately 30% of strains are SCCmec (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec) IV type, frequently USA300, which in the general population have different genotypic and phenotypic features than SCCmec II type. Objectives: We hypothesized that risk factors for acquisition and outcomes in patients with CF differed for "health care-associated" (SCCmec II) versus "community-associated" (SCCmec IV)MRSAstrains. Methods: To determine the role of SCCmec type and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), MRSA isolates from patients not more than 18 years old at seven CF centers were typed and the association of potential risk factors and subsequent clinical course was assessed, using data provided by the CF Patient Registry. Measurements and Main Results: Participants with chronic MRSA (295) had typeable isolates and clinical data; 205 (69.5%) had SCCmec II PVL(-), 39 (13.2%) had SCCmec IV PVL(-), and 51 (17.3%) had SCCmec IVPVL(1) strains.SCCmec IV, comparedwith SCCmec II, increased during the study period, 1996-2010 (P = 0.03). SCCmec II was associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa-positive cultures and three or more clinic visits in the 6 months preceding the first positive MRSA culture (adjusted odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.74; P = 0.019). Lung function and anthropometrics remained unchanged in the 6 months after initial MRSA detection compared with the 6 months prior. Although CF care increased for participants in both groups in the 6 months after MRSA detection, inhaled antibiotics were prescribed more frequently in those with SCCmec II strains and increased hospitalizations occurred in those with SCCmec IV PVL(-) strains compared with those with PVL(1) strains (adjusted difference, 34.10%; 95% confidence interval, 7.58-60.61; P = 0.012). Participants in both groups had an increase in CF care in the 2 years after MRSA detection compared with the 2 years prior. Conclusions: Increased exposure to CF clinics and P. aeruginosa may constitute risk factors for acquisition of SCCmec II MRSA strains. Clinical interventions increased 6 months and 2 years after initial MRSA detection regardless of SCCmec type.
- Clinic visits
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
- Panton-Valentine leukocidin
- Risk factor
- SCCmec type
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine