Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a 42 kDa homeodomain (HD) containing the tissue-specific transcription factor of Nkx2 family members (also termed TEBP and Nkx2.1). TTF-1 is an essential transcription factor required for lung development and lung-specific gene expression. Transgenic mice carrying TTF-1 DNA-binding site mutations completely abolish expression of the human surfactant protein B (hSP-B) 1.5 kb lacZ reporter gene in the lung in vivo. Acetylation of transcription factors by nuclear receptor coactivators is an important mechanism for gene regulation. TTF-1 is acetylated by nuclear receptor coactivators including the activator of the thyroid and retinoic acid receptor, CREB-binding protein, and steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) in cell transfection and immunoprecipitation studies. A glutathionine transferase pull-down assay shows TTF-1 direct interaction with the SRC-1 histone acetyltransferase domain. Site-specific mutagenesis identifies that the lysine residue at position 182 in the TTF-1 HD is acetylated in respiratory epithelial cells. Mutation at this acetylation site shows a dominant negative effect on SP-B gene transcription. The study supports a concept that acetylation is an important mechanism for TTF-1 activity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas