The underlying mechanisms that lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency causes infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in multiple organs and subsequent inflammation remain incompletely understood. Endothelial cells (ECs), lining the inner layer of blood vessels, constitute barriers regulating leukocytes transmigration to the site of inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that ECs are dysfunctional in LAL-deficient (lal-/-) mice. We found that Ly6G+ cells transmigrated more efficiently across lal -/- ECs than wild-type (lal+/+) ECs, which were associated with increased levels of PECAM-1 and MCP-1 in lal-/- ECs. In addition, lal-/- ECs showed enhanced migration and proliferation, decreased apoptosis, but impaired tube formation and angiogenesis. lal -/- ECs also suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, lal-/- Ly6G+ cells promoted in vivo angiogenesis (including a tumor model), EC tube formation, and proliferation. Finally, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was activated in lal-/- ECs, and inhibition of mTOR reversed EC dysfunctions, including decreasing Ly6G+ cell transmigration, delaying migration, and relieving suppression of T cell proliferation, which was mediated by decreasing production of reactive oxygen species. Our results indicate that LAL regulates EC functions through interaction with MDSCs and modulation of the mTOR pathway, which may provide a mechanistic basis for targeting MDSCs or mTOR to rejuvenate EC functions in LAL deficiency-related diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy