Negative symptoms and poor insight as predictors of the similarity between client and therapist ratings of therapeutic alliance in cognitive behavior therapy for patients with schizophrenia

Paul H. Lysaker, Louanne W. Davis, Kelly D. Buck, Samantha Outcalt, Jamie M. Ringer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Scopus citations


Recent studies have found that clients with schizophrenia rate therapeutic alliance more highly than therapists. Unclear is whether there are clinical characteristics which predict the degree of difference in client and therapist ratings. To explore this, we correlated client and therapist ratings of therapeutic alliance with baseline assessments of positive negative, and disorganized symptoms and awareness of need for treatment. Participants were 40 adults with schizophrenia enrolled in a 6-month program of cognitive behavior therapy. Results indicated that clients produced higher ratings of therapeutic alliance than therapists and that therapist and client general ratings were more disparate when clients had fewer negative symptoms and better insight. Higher overall client ratings of therapeutic alliance were linked to lower levels of positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms and better awareness of need for treatment. Higher overall therapist ratings were linked only to lower levels of disorganized symptoms among clients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-195
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2011



  • insight
  • negative symptoms
  • psychotherapy
  • recovery
  • Schizophrenia
  • therapeutic alliance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this