CONTEXT: HIV-infected (HIV+) children have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with HIV-uninfected children. However, little is known regarding the differences in neurodevelopment between young HIV+ children, HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, and HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyze data on neurodevelopmental performance between young HIV+, HEU, and HUU children. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched the following electronic bibliographic databases: Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were selected on the basis of defined inclusion criteria. Titles, abstracts, and full texts were assessed by 2 independent reviewers. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers and cross-checked by 2 additional reviewers. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were identified for inclusion in the systematic review, and of these, 11 were included in the meta-analysis on the basis of availability of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development scores. Within the meta-analysis, when compared with their HUU peers, HIV+ and HEU children had lower cognitive and motor scores. HIV+ and HEU children with antiretroviral (ARV) exposure had lower cognitive and motor scores compared with those without ARV exposure. LIMITATIONS: We were unable to control adequately for intravenous drug use, geographic location, or quality of the assessment independently. CONCLUSIONS: Both HIV+ and HEU children had worse developmental outcomes compared with HUU children. HIV+ and HEU children with ARV exposure also had worse developmental outcomes compared with those without exposure; however, these results should be interpreted with caution. More research is needed to identify the impact of ARV exposure on young children.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health