Neuroendocrine alterations in the exercising human

Implications for energy homeostasis

John Fuqua, Alan D. Rogol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Complex mechanisms exist in the human to defend against adverse effects of negative energy balance. These include alterations of hormone secretion affecting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor system, the adrenal axis, and the reproductive system, particularly in females. Energy deficits are least partially offset by neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating appetite and satiety. The complex feedback mechanisms reporting peripheral fat and energy stores to the central nervous system involve secretion of the peptide hormones leptin and ghrelin, which act centrally on neurons in the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular area. In addition to appetite regulation, these hormones exert influences on spatially and functionally-related mechanisms regulating reproductive function, such as the kisspeptin-gonadotropin releasing hormone system. Negative energy balance often occurs partially as a result of strenuous and repetitive physical exercise. Exercise stress leads to increased cortisol secretion, but this action is mediated through the induced negative energy balance. In healthy adults with energy deficits, this exercise-induced stress appears to be more important than pure psychological stress in impairing reproductive function. Estrogen deficiency resulting from negative energy balance has important adverse effects on bone density as well as bone microarchitecture, and it may also adversely affect markers of cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)911-921
Number of pages11
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume62
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2013

Fingerprint

Homeostasis
Exercise
Kisspeptins
Hormones
Appetite Regulation
Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus
Ghrelin
Peptide Hormones
Somatomedins
Appetite
Leptin
Psychological Stress
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
Bone Density
Growth Hormone
Hydrocortisone
Estrogens
Cardiovascular Diseases
Central Nervous System
Fats

Keywords

  • Cortisol
  • Energy expenditure
  • Ghrelin
  • Hypogonadism
  • Leptin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Neuroendocrine alterations in the exercising human : Implications for energy homeostasis. / Fuqua, John; Rogol, Alan D.

In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 62, No. 7, 07.2013, p. 911-921.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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