Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Urinary Bladder According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification: Molecular and Clinical Characteristics

Erik Kouba, Liang Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the urinary bladder are a rare type of tumor that account for a small percentage of urinary bladder neoplasms. These tumors of the urinary bladder range from well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (carcinoids) to the more aggressive subtypes such as small cell carcinoma. Despite the rarity of the neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, there has been substantial investigation into the underlying genomic, molecular, and the cellular alterations within this group of neoplasms. Accordingly, these findings are increasingly incorporated into the understanding of clinical aspects of these neoplasms. In this review, we provide an overview of recent literature related to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Urinary Bladder. Particular emphasis is placed on molecular alterations and recently described gene expression. The neuroendocrine tumors of the urinary bladder are subdivided into four subtypes. Similar to their pulmonary and other extrapulmonary site counterparts, these have different degrees of neuroendocrine differentiation and morphological features. The clinical aspects of four subtypes of neuroendocrine tumor are discussed with emphasis of the most recent developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. An understanding of molecular basis of neuroendocrine tumors will provide a base of knowledge for future investigations into this group of unusual bladder neoplasms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)188-199
Number of pages12
JournalEndocrine Pathology
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

Keywords

  • 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification
  • Bladder
  • Carcinoid
  • Molecular genetic classification
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Paraganglioma
  • Small cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Endocrinology

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