Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is monogenic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation of NF1 gene, which leads to increased susceptibility to various tumors formations. Additionally, majority of patients with NF1 are experience high incidence of cognitive deficits. Particularly, we review the growing number of reports demonstrated a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in individuals with NF1. In this review we also discuss face validity of preclinical Nf1 mouse models. Then we describe discoveries from these animal models that have uncovered the deficiencies in the regulation of Ras and other intracellular pathways as critical mechanisms underlying the Nf1 cognitive problems. We also summarize and interpret recent preclinical and clinical studies that point toward potential pharmacological therapies for NF1 patients.