Objectives: To review neuroimaging research concerning cancer- and cancer treatment-related changes in brain structure and function, clinical perspectives, and future directions. Data Sources: Peer-reviewed literature. Conclusion: Cancer and chemotherapy are associated with cerebral structural and functional alterations in breast cancer patients that may persist for years; many of these changes are correlated with cognitive complaints or performance. In other cancers there is some evidence that metabolism is altered by cancer, but more research is needed. Implications for Nursing Practice: Understanding the role of neuroimaging is important to identify the basis of cognitive changes associated with cancer and cancer treatment.
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