The goal of the present chapter is to provide an overview of the major findings from studies of neuroimaging in dementia, particularly from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The major emphasis is on findings from a variety of imaging modalities and the use of these measures for early diagnosis and as biomarkers of disease progression. In this chapter, we first describe the basic neurobiological changes and clinical symptoms associated with AD and related cognitive decline. Next, we discuss results from studies in AD utilizing structural neuroimaging techniques, including computerized tomography (CT), traditional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other MRI techniques [diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)]. Next, we explore findings from functional MRI studies, including task-related activation studies and resting and functional connectivity research. We, then, discuss results from the use of nuclear medicine techniques in AD, including single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Neuroimaging in other dementias is also briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on differential diagnosis of dementia type. Finally, we explore future directions for neuroimaging of early AD and dementia.
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