Neuroinflammation, hyperphosphorylated tau, diffuse amyloid plaques, and down-regulation of the cellular prion protein in air pollution exposed children and young adults

Lilian Calderón-Garcidueas, Michael Kavanaugh, Michelle Block, Amedeo D'Angiulli, Ricardo Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Angelica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Norma Osnaya, Rodolfo Villarreal-Calderon, Ruixin Guo, Zhaowei Hua, Hongtu Zhu, George Perry, Philippe Diaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

141 Scopus citations

Abstract

Air pollution exposures have been linked to neuroinflammation and neuropathology. Autopsy samples of the frontal cortex from control (n = 8) and pollution-exposed (n = 35) children and young adults were analyzed by RT-PCR (n = 43) and microarray analysis (n = 12) for gene expression changes in oxidative stress, DNA damage signaling, NFκB signaling, inflammation, and neurodegeneration pathways. The effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on the presence of protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology was also explored. Exposed urbanites displayed differential (>2-fold) regulation of 134 genes. Forty percent exhibited tau hyperphosphorylation with pre-tangle material and 51% had amyloid-β (Aβ) diffuse plaques compared with 0% in controls. APOE4 carriers had greater hyperphosphorylated tau and diffuse Aβ plaques versus E3 carriers (Q = 7.82, p = 0.005). Upregulated gene network clusters included IL1, NFκB, TNF, IFN, and TLRs. A 15-fold frontal down-regulation of the prion-related protein (PrPC) was seen in highly exposed subjects. The down-regulation of the PrPC is critical given its important roles for neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, and mood disorder states. Elevation of indices of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, down-regulation of the PrPC and AD-associated pathology are present in young megacity residents. The inducible regulation of gene expression suggests they are evolving different mechanisms in an attempt to cope with the constant state of inflammation and oxidative stress related to their environmental exposures. Together, these data support a role for air pollution in CNS damage and its impact upon the developing brain and the potential etiology of AD and mood disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-107
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • air pollution
  • cellular prion protein
  • children
  • inflammasomes
  • neuroinflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • particulate matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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  • Cite this

    Calderón-Garcidueas, L., Kavanaugh, M., Block, M., D'Angiulli, A., Delgado-Chávez, R., Torres-Jardón, R., González-Maciel, A., Reynoso-Robles, R., Osnaya, N., Villarreal-Calderon, R., Guo, R., Hua, Z., Zhu, H., Perry, G., & Diaz, P. (2012). Neuroinflammation, hyperphosphorylated tau, diffuse amyloid plaques, and down-regulation of the cellular prion protein in air pollution exposed children and young adults. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 28(1), 93-107. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2011-110722