The clinical manifestation of drug-induced abnormalities in thermoregulation occurs across a variety of drug mechanisms. The aim of this chapter is to review two of the most common drug-induced hyperthermic states, serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies will be discussed, in addition to differentiating between these two syndromes and differentiating them from other hyperthermic or febrile syndromes. Our goal is to both review the current literature and to provide a practical guide to identification and treatment of these potentially life-threatening illnesses. The diagnostic and treatment recommendations made by us, and by other authors, are likely to change with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of these syndromes.