New aspects of cellular cholesterol regulation on blood glucose control- review and perspective on the impact of statin medications on metabolic health

Brian A. Grice, Jeffrey Elmendorf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes, and during the past several years, diabetes researchers have found that membrane cholesterol levels in adipocytes, skeletal muscle fibers and pancreatic beta cells influence insulin action and insulin secretion. Consequently, it is thought that dysregulated cell cholesterol homeostasis could represent a determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent clinical findings compellingly add to this notion by finding increased T2D susceptibility in individuals with alterations in a variety of cholesterol metabolism genes. While it remains imperfectly understood how statins influence glucose metabolism, the fact that they display an influence on blood glucose levels and diabetes susceptibility seems to intensify the emerging importance of understanding cellular cholesterol in glucose metabolism. Taking this into account, this review first presents cell system and animal model findings that demonstrate the negative impact of cellular cholesterol accumulation or diminution on insulin action and insulin secretion. With this framework, a description of how changes in cholesterol metabolism genes are associated with T2D susceptibility will be presented. In addition, the connection between statins and T2D risk will be reviewed with expanded information on pitavastatin, a newer statin medication that displays actions favoring metabolic health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-68
Number of pages6
JournalUS Endocrinology
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Blood Glucose
Cholesterol
Health
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin
Glucose
Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Insulin-Secreting Cells
Adipocytes
Genes
Homeostasis
Animal Models
Research Personnel
Cell Membrane
Membranes

Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Glucose
  • Insulin resistance
  • Statins
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

@article{cf952f836d3e4d7fb9a82d704384fe39,
title = "New aspects of cellular cholesterol regulation on blood glucose control- review and perspective on the impact of statin medications on metabolic health",
abstract = "Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes, and during the past several years, diabetes researchers have found that membrane cholesterol levels in adipocytes, skeletal muscle fibers and pancreatic beta cells influence insulin action and insulin secretion. Consequently, it is thought that dysregulated cell cholesterol homeostasis could represent a determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent clinical findings compellingly add to this notion by finding increased T2D susceptibility in individuals with alterations in a variety of cholesterol metabolism genes. While it remains imperfectly understood how statins influence glucose metabolism, the fact that they display an influence on blood glucose levels and diabetes susceptibility seems to intensify the emerging importance of understanding cellular cholesterol in glucose metabolism. Taking this into account, this review first presents cell system and animal model findings that demonstrate the negative impact of cellular cholesterol accumulation or diminution on insulin action and insulin secretion. With this framework, a description of how changes in cholesterol metabolism genes are associated with T2D susceptibility will be presented. In addition, the connection between statins and T2D risk will be reviewed with expanded information on pitavastatin, a newer statin medication that displays actions favoring metabolic health.",
keywords = "Cholesterol, Dyslipidemia, Glucose, Insulin resistance, Statins, Type 2 diabetes",
author = "Grice, {Brian A.} and Jeffrey Elmendorf",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.17925/USE.2017.13.02.63",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
pages = "63--68",
journal = "US Endocrinology",
issn = "1758-3918",
publisher = "Touch Briefings",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - New aspects of cellular cholesterol regulation on blood glucose control- review and perspective on the impact of statin medications on metabolic health

AU - Grice, Brian A.

AU - Elmendorf, Jeffrey

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes, and during the past several years, diabetes researchers have found that membrane cholesterol levels in adipocytes, skeletal muscle fibers and pancreatic beta cells influence insulin action and insulin secretion. Consequently, it is thought that dysregulated cell cholesterol homeostasis could represent a determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent clinical findings compellingly add to this notion by finding increased T2D susceptibility in individuals with alterations in a variety of cholesterol metabolism genes. While it remains imperfectly understood how statins influence glucose metabolism, the fact that they display an influence on blood glucose levels and diabetes susceptibility seems to intensify the emerging importance of understanding cellular cholesterol in glucose metabolism. Taking this into account, this review first presents cell system and animal model findings that demonstrate the negative impact of cellular cholesterol accumulation or diminution on insulin action and insulin secretion. With this framework, a description of how changes in cholesterol metabolism genes are associated with T2D susceptibility will be presented. In addition, the connection between statins and T2D risk will be reviewed with expanded information on pitavastatin, a newer statin medication that displays actions favoring metabolic health.

AB - Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes, and during the past several years, diabetes researchers have found that membrane cholesterol levels in adipocytes, skeletal muscle fibers and pancreatic beta cells influence insulin action and insulin secretion. Consequently, it is thought that dysregulated cell cholesterol homeostasis could represent a determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent clinical findings compellingly add to this notion by finding increased T2D susceptibility in individuals with alterations in a variety of cholesterol metabolism genes. While it remains imperfectly understood how statins influence glucose metabolism, the fact that they display an influence on blood glucose levels and diabetes susceptibility seems to intensify the emerging importance of understanding cellular cholesterol in glucose metabolism. Taking this into account, this review first presents cell system and animal model findings that demonstrate the negative impact of cellular cholesterol accumulation or diminution on insulin action and insulin secretion. With this framework, a description of how changes in cholesterol metabolism genes are associated with T2D susceptibility will be presented. In addition, the connection between statins and T2D risk will be reviewed with expanded information on pitavastatin, a newer statin medication that displays actions favoring metabolic health.

KW - Cholesterol

KW - Dyslipidemia

KW - Glucose

KW - Insulin resistance

KW - Statins

KW - Type 2 diabetes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85037080655&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85037080655&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.17925/USE.2017.13.02.63

DO - 10.17925/USE.2017.13.02.63

M3 - Review article

VL - 13

SP - 63

EP - 68

JO - US Endocrinology

JF - US Endocrinology

SN - 1758-3918

IS - 2

ER -