Non-linear large deformation FE analysis of orthodontic springs

Jie Chen, Ken Chen, Thomas R. Katona, James J. Baldwin, Gordon R. Arbuckle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


Large deformation non-linear finite element models of T, V, L and B (Baldwin) orthodontic springs were developed and experimentally validated. Spring stiffnesses and moment/force ratios were computed. Compared to the T loop, under horizontal activation, the V loop was half as stiff, the L loop was equal, and the B spring was 10% as stiff. The moment/force ratio was 30% higher in the V configuration, while the B spring was less by 95%. The asymmetric L loop exerted a moment/force ratio that was 30% on the one side, but 180% in the opposite direction on the other side. With vertical activation, also compared to the T spring, the horizontal stiffnesses were 500% (V), 150% (L), and 30% (B). The concomitant vertical stiffnesses were 100%, 50% and 25%. The vertically activated moment/force ratios were nearly equal in the four springs. Experiments validated these FEM calculations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-110
Number of pages12
JournalBio-Medical Materials and Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1997


  • FEM
  • Force
  • Moment
  • Orthodontic springs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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