Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The association between NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome is well established: the presence of the metabolic syndrome signifies advanced histology in NAFLD patients. Emerging data indicate that patients with NAFLD have a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the definitions of the two syndromes, their association, and the cardiovascular risk conferred by both when they occur separately and together. This review also discusses management options for the syndromes, including treating the individual components of the metabolic syndrome in NAFLD patients.
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