PURPOSE. To define the molecular pharmacology underlying the antiangiogenic effects of nonpeptide imidazolidine-2,4-dione somatostatin receptor agonists (NISAs) and evaluate the efficacy of NISA in ocular versus systemic delivery routes in ocular disease models. METHODS. Functional inhibitory effects of the NISAs and the somatostatin peptide analogue octreotide were evaluated in vitro by chemotaxis, proliferation, and tube-formation assays. The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model and the laser model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were used to test the in vivo efficacy of NISAs. Transscleral permeability of a candidate NISA was also measured. RESULTS. NISAs inhibited growth factor-induced HREC proliferation, migration and tube formation with submicromolar potencies (IC50, 0.1-1.0 μM) comparable to octreotide. In the OIR model, systemic administration of the NISAs RFE-007 and RFE-011 inhibited retinal neovascularization in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to octreotide. In the CNV model, intravitreal RFE-011 resulted in a 56% reduction (P < 0.01) in CNV lesion area, whereas systemic administration resulted in a 35% reduction (P < 0.05) in lesion area. RFE-011 demonstrated transscleral penetration. CONCLUSIONS. Micromolar concentrations of octreotide and NISAs are necessary for antiangiogenic effects, whereas nanomolar concentrations are effective for endocrine inhibition. This suggests that the antiangiogenic activity of NISAs and octreotide is mediated by an overall much less efficient downstream coupling mechanism than is growth hormone release. As a result, the intravitreal or transscleral route of administration should be seriously considered for future clinical studies of SSTR2 agonists used for treatment of ocular neovascularization to ensure efficacious concentrations in the target retinal and choroidal tissue.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience