Nonpulmonary complications of sarcoidosis

Lydia Gilbert-McClain, David S. Wilkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In 1899, Caesar Boeck used the term 'sarcoidosis' to describe a benign cutaneous lesion. About 30 years later, Jonathan Hutchinson described skin lesions that were later realized to be one of the possible manifestations of sarcoidosis. It was nearly a half century later that sarcoidosis was recognized as a multisystem granulomatous disease with protean manifestations for which the etiologic causes remain unknown. Sarcoidosis commonly affects young adults, and the most frequent clinical presentation is bilateral hilar adenopathy, with or without pulmonary infiltrates. However, this disorder can affect any organ system and produce a wide array of clinical findings. The many manifestations of sarcoidosis include neurologic, cardiac, ocular, cutaneous, hepatic, renal, endocrine, orolaryngeal, splenic, and musculoskeletal disease. This article will discuss these nonpulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis, their clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)164-171
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Pulmonary Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996


  • Cardiac
  • Granulomatous inflammation
  • Neurologic
  • Ocular
  • Sarcoidosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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