Not all neurogenic bladders are the same: A proposal for a new neurogenic bladder classification system

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Neurogenic bladder (NGB) has long been defined as a clinical entity that describes a heterogeneous collection of syndromes. The common theme is a bladder disorder concomitant with a neurologic disorder. This definition does not give the clinician much information about the bladder disorder, nor how to treat it, or even what the natural history of the disorder is likely to be. It may be time for a new classification scheme to better define the bladder defect and prognosis, as well as inform treatment. We propose a classification system based on seven categories, each having a neurologic defect in a distinct anatomic location. This is termed SALE (Stratify by Anatomic Location and Etiology). In addition, the presence or absence of bowel dysfunction and autonomic dysreflexia will be reported. In the future, as more definite prognostic information can be gleaned from biomarkers, we anticipate adding urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) and urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels to the definition. We expect the SALE system to efficiently describe a patient suffering from NGB and simultaneously inform the most appropriate treatment, follow-up regimen, and long-term prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-21
Number of pages10
JournalTranslational Andrology and Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF)
  • Urinary bladder; neurogenic
  • Urodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Urology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Not all neurogenic bladders are the same: A proposal for a new neurogenic bladder classification system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this