Observational analyses have suggested that women using the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may have heightened risk of acquiring HIV. However, those analyses were potentially confounded by sexual behavior, with possible differential condom use and reporting by women using DMPA versus no contraception. In a cross-sectional study, we measured the presence of a biomarker of recent condomless sex (Y chromosomal [Yc] DNA) in vaginal swabs from HIV-uninfected African women who had an HIV-infected partner and reported 100 % condom use. Half of the samples tested were from women reporting DMPA and half were from women using no contraception. Among 428 specimens tested (213 from DMPA users and 215 from women using no contraception), 32.0 % had Yc DNA detected, with a mean of 193 copies/10,000 human cells (range 0.1–8201). The frequency of detection did not differ by contraceptive use: 34.2 % of DMPA users versus 29.8 % of women using no contraception, adjusted odds ratio 1.3 (95 % confidence interval 0.9–2.0). These results suggest that inaccurate reporting of condom use by DMPA users may not account for the heightened risk of HIV acquisition among DMPA users in some observational studies.
- Y chromosomal DNA
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases