Operative anatomy of the human skull: A virtual reality expedition

Benjamin K. Hendricks, Akash J. Patel, Jerome Hartman, Mark F. Seifert, Aaron Cohen-Gadol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


INTRODUCTION: The human cranial vault possesses an incredible, complex anatomical intricacy. Bridging the divide between 2-dimensional (2D) learning resources and the 3-dimensional (3D) world in which the anatomy becomes clinically relevant poses an intellectual challenge. Advances in computer graphics and modelling technologies have allowed increasingly accurate and representative resources to supplement cadaveric dissection specimens. OBJECTIVE: To create accurate virtual models of all cranial bones to augment education, research, and clinical endeavours. METHODS: Through a careful analysis of osteological specimens and high-resolution radiographic studies, a highly accurate virtual model of the human skull was created and annotated with relevant anatomical landmarks. RESULTS: The skull was divided into 6 major segments including frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, temporal, parietal, and occipital bones. These bones were thoroughly annotated to demonstrate the intricate anatomical features. CONCLUSION: This virtual model has the potential to serve as a valuable resource for educational, research, and clinical endeavours, and demonstrates the significance of advances in computer modelling that can contribute to our understanding of neurosurgical anatomical substrates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)368-377
Number of pages10
JournalOperative Neurosurgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2018


  • 3D
  • Craniotomy
  • Operative anatomy
  • Skull
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Operative anatomy of the human skull: A virtual reality expedition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this