Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children

Ramiro S. Maldonado, Joseph A. Izatt, Neeru Sarin, David K. Wallace, Sharon Freedman, C. Michael Cotten, Cynthia A. Toth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

121 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. To describe age-related considerations and methods to improve hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography (HH-SD OCT) imaging of eyes of neonates, infants, and children. METHODS. Based on calculated optical parameters for neonatal and infant eyes, individualized SD OCT scan parameters were developed for improved imaging in pediatric eyes. Forty-two subjects from 31 weeks postmenstrual age to 1.5 years were imaged with a portable HH-SD OCT system. Images were analyzed for quality, field of scan, magnification, and potential clinical utility. RESULTS. The axial length of the premature infant eye increases rapidly in a linear pattern during the neonatal period and slows progressively with age. Refractive error shifts from mild myopia in neonates to mild hyperopia in infants. These factors affect magnification and field of view of optical diagnostic tools applied to the infant eye. When SD OCT parameters were corrected based on age-related optical parameters, SD OCT image quality improved in young infants. The field of scan and ease of operation also improved, and the optic nerve, fovea, and posterior pole were successfully imaged in 74% and 87% of individual eye imaging sessions in the intensive care nursery and clinic, respectively. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS. SD OCT in young children and neonates should be customized for the unique optical parameters of the infant eye. This customization, not only improves image quality, but also allows control of the density of the optical sampling directed onto the retina.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2678-2685
Number of pages8
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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