Mandibular distraction osteogenesis is an established technique used to treat infants with Pierre Robin sequence associated with severe airway obstruction. The authors present a 7-year retrospective review of all patients with Pierre Robin sequence treated with mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Recorded variables included improvements in apnea/hypopnea index and postintervention tracheostomy. Multiple preoperative variables were assessed for association with successful mandibular distraction osteogenesis or tracheostomy. Fifty patients were identified for this study. Four patients (8 percent) required tracheostomy after distraction. A Fisher's exact test demonstrated no statistical association of tracheostomy with prematurity, low birth weight, preoperative intubation, late intervention, genetic syndromes, cardiac abnormalities, pulmonary abnormalities, or gastrostomy tube. The absence of a cleft palate, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and need for Nissen fundoplication were associated with failure of distraction. Clinical Question/Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, IV.
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