Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome associated with bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to restore normal hematopoiesis. Although low-intensity fludarabine-based preparative regimens without radiation confer excellent outcomes in FA HSCTs with HLA-matched sibling donors, outcomes for FA patients with alternative donors are less encouraging, albeit improving. We present our experience with 17 FA patients who completed mismatched related or unrelated donor HSCT using a non-radiation fludarabine-based preparative regimen at Charité University Medicine Berlin. All patients engrafted; however, one patient had unstable chimerism in the setting of multi-viral infections that necessitated a stem cell boost to revert to full donor chimerism. Forty-seven percent of patients developed grade I acute graft-verus-host disease (aGVHD). No grade II–IV aGVHD or chronic graft-versus-host disease of any severity occurred. At a median follow-up of 30 months, 88 % of patients are alive with normal hematopoiesis. Two patients died of infections 4 months post-transplantation. These results demonstrate that short-term outcomes for FA patients with mismatched and unrelated donor HSCTs can be excellent using chemotherapy only conditioning. Viral reactivation, however, was a major treatment-related complication.
- Alternative donor HSCT
- Fanconi anemia
- Fludarabine-based conditioning
- Non-radiation conditioning
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