The relocation of ovaries for their protection in women diagnosed with cancer in the pelvis was mentioned as early as 1958 by McCall et al. [1, 2]. At that time, the procedure was termed oophoropexy and considered to be revolutionary, controversial and “cutting edge” fertility preservation. Now, over 50 years later, this procedure has another, perhaps more accurate name, of ovarian transposition. Paradoxically, it is still considered controversial as the next generation of physicians becomes experienced in its benefits and limitations. Although the discussion of ovarian transposition has not changed much in the last 50 years, women's reproductive behavior has, making transposition a more important topic. This is because women are, on average waiting longer to have their first child, desiring subsequent children at later ages, and are becoming more aware of their available fertility options [3–5]. Although cancers of the pelvic region still remain rare in women of reproductive age, their incidence increases with age, thus leaving women with delayed first pregnancy more vulnerable to the possible loss of fertility. The increase in the number of potentially affected women can be estimated based on cancer incidence and fecundity. For instance, even if the general incidence of primary pelvic malignancies is approximately 1/10 000, then a delay from age 24 to age 25 in the median age of first conception may expose a significant number of women to a cancer diagnosis before first planned or desired pregnancy.
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