Overexpression of XMyoD or XMyf5 in xenopus embryos inducesthe formation of enlarged myotomes through recruitment of cells of nonsomitic lineage

D. C. Ludolph, A. W. Neff, A. L. Mescher, G. M. Malacinski, M. A. Parker, R. C. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD and Myf5 are the earliest described muscle-specific genes to be expressed in Xenopus development. To study the in vivo effects of overexpressing Xenopus MyoD and Myf5, synthetic RNAs were microinjected into single blastomeres of 2- to 32-cell stage Xenopus embryos. In vivo overexpression of these MRFs initiates the precocious and ectopic expression of actin and myosin. The effects of unilateral injection of either mRNA were indistinguishable; embryos injected at the 2-cell stage showed ipsilaterally enlarged cranial and anterior trunk myotomes composed of increased numbers of primary myotome myocytes. In addition, formation of ectopic muscle in lateral plate and neural tissue was observed. The MRF-induced effects persist through secondary myogenesis, with the enlarged cranial myotomes failing to undergo the normal program of degeneration. Experiments combining MRF RNA and lineage tracer injections showed that myotomal enlargement is due in part to the contribution of cells of nonsomitic lineage to the myotome, rather than to an increase in muscle precursor cell division. Over-expression of XMyoD and XMyf5 also affected the morphogenesis of the skin and the nervous system. These results reveal that overexpression of XMyoD or XMyf5 in vivo clearly influences the regulation of early myogenesis and the morphogenesis of skin and nervous tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-33
Number of pages16
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Volume166
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1994

Fingerprint

Myogenic Regulatory Factors
Cell Lineage
Xenopus
Embryonic Structures
Muscle Development
Morphogenesis
Muscles
RNA
Neural Plate
Nerve Tissue
Blastomeres
Skin
Injections
Myosins
Cell Division
Muscle Cells
Nervous System
Actins
Messenger RNA
Genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Overexpression of XMyoD or XMyf5 in xenopus embryos inducesthe formation of enlarged myotomes through recruitment of cells of nonsomitic lineage. / Ludolph, D. C.; Neff, A. W.; Mescher, A. L.; Malacinski, G. M.; Parker, M. A.; Smith, R. C.

In: Developmental Biology, Vol. 166, No. 1, 11.1994, p. 18-33.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ludolph, D. C. ; Neff, A. W. ; Mescher, A. L. ; Malacinski, G. M. ; Parker, M. A. ; Smith, R. C. / Overexpression of XMyoD or XMyf5 in xenopus embryos inducesthe formation of enlarged myotomes through recruitment of cells of nonsomitic lineage. In: Developmental Biology. 1994 ; Vol. 166, No. 1. pp. 18-33.
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abstract = "The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD and Myf5 are the earliest described muscle-specific genes to be expressed in Xenopus development. To study the in vivo effects of overexpressing Xenopus MyoD and Myf5, synthetic RNAs were microinjected into single blastomeres of 2- to 32-cell stage Xenopus embryos. In vivo overexpression of these MRFs initiates the precocious and ectopic expression of actin and myosin. The effects of unilateral injection of either mRNA were indistinguishable; embryos injected at the 2-cell stage showed ipsilaterally enlarged cranial and anterior trunk myotomes composed of increased numbers of primary myotome myocytes. In addition, formation of ectopic muscle in lateral plate and neural tissue was observed. The MRF-induced effects persist through secondary myogenesis, with the enlarged cranial myotomes failing to undergo the normal program of degeneration. Experiments combining MRF RNA and lineage tracer injections showed that myotomal enlargement is due in part to the contribution of cells of nonsomitic lineage to the myotome, rather than to an increase in muscle precursor cell division. Over-expression of XMyoD and XMyf5 also affected the morphogenesis of the skin and the nervous system. These results reveal that overexpression of XMyoD or XMyf5 in vivo clearly influences the regulation of early myogenesis and the morphogenesis of skin and nervous tissue.",
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