Patiromer to Enable Spironolactone Use in the Treatment of Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Rationale and Design of the AMBER Study

Rajiv Agarwal, Patrick Rossignol, Dahlia Garza, Martha R. Mayo, Suzette Warren, Susan Arthur, Alain Romero, William B. White, Bryan Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies -evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to risk of hyperkalemia. AMBER (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03071263) will evaluate if the potassium-binding polymer patiromer used concomitantly with spironolactone in patients with RHTN and CKD prevents hyperkalemia and allows more persistent spironolactone use for hypertension management. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group 12-week study of patiromer and spironolactone versus placebo and spironolactone in patients with uncontrolled RHTN and CKD. RHTN is defined as unattended systolic automated office blood pressure (AOBP) of -135-160 mm Hg during screening despite taking ≥3 antihypertensives, including a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker -(unless not tolerated or contraindicated). The CKD inclusion criterion is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Screening serum potassium must be 4.3-5.1 mEq/L. The primary efficacy endpoint is the between-group difference (spironolactone plus patiromer versus spironolactone plus placebo) in the proportion of patients remaining on spironolactone at Week 12. Results: Baseline characteristics have been analyzed as of March 2018 for 146 (of a targeted 290) patients. Mean (SD) baseline age is 69.3 (10.9) years; 52.1% are male, 99.3% White, and 47.3% have diabetes. Mean (SD) baseline serum potassium is 4.68 (0.25) mEq/L, systolic AOBP is 144.3 (6.8) mm Hg, eGFR is 35.7 (7.7) mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusion: AMBER will define the ability of patiromer to facilitate the use of spironolactone, an effective antihypertensive therapy for patients with RHTN and CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)172-180
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Spironolactone
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Hypertension
Potassium
Hyperkalemia
Placebos
Therapeutics
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Antihypertensive Agents
Blood Pressure
Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
patiromer
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
Serum
Double-Blind Method
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Diuretics
Polymers
Kidney

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Patiromer to Enable Spironolactone Use in the Treatment of Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease : Rationale and Design of the AMBER Study. / Agarwal, Rajiv; Rossignol, Patrick; Garza, Dahlia; Mayo, Martha R.; Warren, Suzette; Arthur, Susan; Romero, Alain; White, William B.; Williams, Bryan.

In: American Journal of Nephrology, 01.01.2018, p. 172-180.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Agarwal, Rajiv ; Rossignol, Patrick ; Garza, Dahlia ; Mayo, Martha R. ; Warren, Suzette ; Arthur, Susan ; Romero, Alain ; White, William B. ; Williams, Bryan. / Patiromer to Enable Spironolactone Use in the Treatment of Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease : Rationale and Design of the AMBER Study. In: American Journal of Nephrology. 2018 ; pp. 172-180.
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abstract = "Background: While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies -evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to risk of hyperkalemia. AMBER (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03071263) will evaluate if the potassium-binding polymer patiromer used concomitantly with spironolactone in patients with RHTN and CKD prevents hyperkalemia and allows more persistent spironolactone use for hypertension management. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group 12-week study of patiromer and spironolactone versus placebo and spironolactone in patients with uncontrolled RHTN and CKD. RHTN is defined as unattended systolic automated office blood pressure (AOBP) of -135-160 mm Hg during screening despite taking ≥3 antihypertensives, including a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker -(unless not tolerated or contraindicated). The CKD inclusion criterion is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Screening serum potassium must be 4.3-5.1 mEq/L. The primary efficacy endpoint is the between-group difference (spironolactone plus patiromer versus spironolactone plus placebo) in the proportion of patients remaining on spironolactone at Week 12. Results: Baseline characteristics have been analyzed as of March 2018 for 146 (of a targeted 290) patients. Mean (SD) baseline age is 69.3 (10.9) years; 52.1{\%} are male, 99.3{\%} White, and 47.3{\%} have diabetes. Mean (SD) baseline serum potassium is 4.68 (0.25) mEq/L, systolic AOBP is 144.3 (6.8) mm Hg, eGFR is 35.7 (7.7) mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusion: AMBER will define the ability of patiromer to facilitate the use of spironolactone, an effective antihypertensive therapy for patients with RHTN and CKD.",
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T1 - Patiromer to Enable Spironolactone Use in the Treatment of Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease

T2 - Rationale and Design of the AMBER Study

AU - Agarwal, Rajiv

AU - Rossignol, Patrick

AU - Garza, Dahlia

AU - Mayo, Martha R.

AU - Warren, Suzette

AU - Arthur, Susan

AU - Romero, Alain

AU - White, William B.

AU - Williams, Bryan

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background: While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies -evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to risk of hyperkalemia. AMBER (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03071263) will evaluate if the potassium-binding polymer patiromer used concomitantly with spironolactone in patients with RHTN and CKD prevents hyperkalemia and allows more persistent spironolactone use for hypertension management. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group 12-week study of patiromer and spironolactone versus placebo and spironolactone in patients with uncontrolled RHTN and CKD. RHTN is defined as unattended systolic automated office blood pressure (AOBP) of -135-160 mm Hg during screening despite taking ≥3 antihypertensives, including a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker -(unless not tolerated or contraindicated). The CKD inclusion criterion is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Screening serum potassium must be 4.3-5.1 mEq/L. The primary efficacy endpoint is the between-group difference (spironolactone plus patiromer versus spironolactone plus placebo) in the proportion of patients remaining on spironolactone at Week 12. Results: Baseline characteristics have been analyzed as of March 2018 for 146 (of a targeted 290) patients. Mean (SD) baseline age is 69.3 (10.9) years; 52.1% are male, 99.3% White, and 47.3% have diabetes. Mean (SD) baseline serum potassium is 4.68 (0.25) mEq/L, systolic AOBP is 144.3 (6.8) mm Hg, eGFR is 35.7 (7.7) mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusion: AMBER will define the ability of patiromer to facilitate the use of spironolactone, an effective antihypertensive therapy for patients with RHTN and CKD.

AB - Background: While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies -evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to risk of hyperkalemia. AMBER (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03071263) will evaluate if the potassium-binding polymer patiromer used concomitantly with spironolactone in patients with RHTN and CKD prevents hyperkalemia and allows more persistent spironolactone use for hypertension management. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group 12-week study of patiromer and spironolactone versus placebo and spironolactone in patients with uncontrolled RHTN and CKD. RHTN is defined as unattended systolic automated office blood pressure (AOBP) of -135-160 mm Hg during screening despite taking ≥3 antihypertensives, including a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker -(unless not tolerated or contraindicated). The CKD inclusion criterion is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Screening serum potassium must be 4.3-5.1 mEq/L. The primary efficacy endpoint is the between-group difference (spironolactone plus patiromer versus spironolactone plus placebo) in the proportion of patients remaining on spironolactone at Week 12. Results: Baseline characteristics have been analyzed as of March 2018 for 146 (of a targeted 290) patients. Mean (SD) baseline age is 69.3 (10.9) years; 52.1% are male, 99.3% White, and 47.3% have diabetes. Mean (SD) baseline serum potassium is 4.68 (0.25) mEq/L, systolic AOBP is 144.3 (6.8) mm Hg, eGFR is 35.7 (7.7) mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusion: AMBER will define the ability of patiromer to facilitate the use of spironolactone, an effective antihypertensive therapy for patients with RHTN and CKD.

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