Pediatric neurotology is a subspecialty encompassing the medical and surgical treatment of conditions involving the middle ear, inner ear and lateral skull base. Multiple otologic and neurotologic diseases exist. In the pediatric patient the most common neurotologic conditions are vertigo, complications of otitis media, cholesteatoma, hearing loss and facial paralysis. Vertigo is differentiated into peripheral and central vestibular abnormalities. Peripheral vestibular causes include Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuronitis, otitis media and labyrinthitis. The predominant lesions in our field causing central vestibular disorders are brainstem and posterior fossa tumors. Mastoiditis, meningitis, petrositis, sigmoid sinus thrombosis, extradural abscess, brain abscess, otitic hydrocephalus, cholesteatoma and cholesterol granuloma are complications of otitis media and middle ear disease. Sensorineural hearing loss is now readily treated with cochlear implantation. Facial nerve paralysis may result from infectious and other etiologies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology