Percutaneous stone implantation in the pig kidney: A new animal model for lithotripsy research

Ryan F. Paterson, James E. Lingeman, Andrew P. Evan, Bret A. Connors, James C. Williams, James A. McAteer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations


Purpose: This report describes a new animal model for research on the parameters of shockwave delivery and the mechanisms of shockwave action in SWL. Materials and Methods: Female pigs (∼45 kg) were anesthetized for creation of an upper pole peripheral caliceal access. The tract was dilated with a 30F Nephromax balloon and Amplatz sheath, and a 24F rigid nephroscope was used to guide a gypsum artificial stone into a lower pole calix. An internal ureteral stent was then placed. After a 2-hour recovery period, lithotripsy was performed using an unmodified Dornier HM3 lithotripter. Following SWL, en bloc excision of the urinary tract was performed, and the stone fragments were collected. Results: As observed by nephroscopy, most stones were surrounded by urine that was free of clot or debris. Urine output was >1 mL/kg per minute by the time the animal was positioned for SWL after a 2-hour observation period. When the conditions of shockwave (SW) exposure were 400 SWs, 20 kV, and 120 SW/min, the efficiency of stone fragment recovery was 85% ± 2% (N = 6 stones). Conclusions: This procedure provides a minimally invasive method for placement of model stones of clinically relevant size within the pig kidney. Stone implantation is efficient and permits experiments to be conducted in 1 day. Stone fragmentation can be quantitated, and the animal can serve as its own control. Long-term experiments are also feasible. Overall, this new animal model is appropriate for experimentation on the parameters of SW delivery in SWL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)543-547
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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