Background: Patients with iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are at highest risk for the postthrombotic morbidity including all aspects of the postthrombotic syndrome. Invasive therapies such as catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) and/or mechanical thrombectomy with or without angioplasty and stenting and in some cases open operative thrombectomy improves venous patency, venous valve function, and quality of life in patients with acute iliofemoral DVT. What is the current frequency of acute iliofemoral DVT and how aggressively is it being treated? We hypothesize that the 10-year period frequency of iliofemoral DVT among acute DVT cases is greater than previously reported. Further, we hypothesize that thrombus removal to treat acute iliofemoral DVT is little utilized in current practice. Methods: Indiana University (IU) vascular laboratory records from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2008 were searched by CPT code for venous Doppler ultrasound study (n = 7240). A random sample based on the IU medical record number of lower extremity Doppler studies was then selected (n = 1020) for retrospective chart review. Corresponding clinical information was gathered from the patients' electronic medical record. Results: Acute DVT occurred in 6.8%, and chronic DVT in 8.8% of patients studied (25.7% inpatient, 61.7% female; median age, 56.0 years [range, 4-91 years, 1.1% less than 16 years]). History of previous DVT (33.3%) and cancer (30.4%) were the most common risk factors in patients with acute DVT. Iliofemoral DVT defined as having an iliac or common femoral vein component was identified in 49.3% of acute DVT and in 36.0% of chronic DVT. CDT was utilized in 14.3% and mechanical thrombectomy in 4.8% of acute iliofemoral DVT, and was never used with distal DVT. Warfarin anticoagulation unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin overlap was the most common treatment for acute iliofemoral DVT (100.0%). In 2008, the referral base of our laboratory increased significantly. Acute DVT occurred significantly less often during the 1-year period 2008 (5.3%) than the 10-year period 1998-2007 (7.6%), but iliofemoral common femoral DVT as a component of acute DVT did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Iliofemoral DVT may be more frequent than previously reported and represents a significant portion of acute DVT. Current recommendations of acute thrombus removal for the treatment of iliofemoral DVT is underutilized suggesting that perhaps greater education of clinicians and patients regarding invasive therapy for iliofemoral DVT is required.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine