Perioperative and 1-year transcarotid revascularization outcomes in symptomatic patients

S. Keisin Wang, Sarah Severance, Greg G. Westin, John G. Maijub, Alok K. Gupta, Alan P. Sawchuk, Andres C. Fajardo, Raghu L. Motaganahalli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Previously published results of carotid revascularization with both transfemoral stenting and endarterectomy have demonstrated inferior perioperative stroke and death outcomes in neurologically symptomatic patients compared with those without symptoms. This study was completed to establish the real-world, symptom-based perioperative and follow-up outcomes for transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR). Methods: An institutional retrospective review of all TCARs performed outside of clinical trial regulations from 2016 to 2019 was completed. Eligible patients were classified as symptomatic or not based on a history of a unilateral neurologic deficit attributable to an extracranial carotid artery lesion within the previous 180 days. Univariate analysis consisting of Fisher's exact and Student t-tests, as appropriate, were performed between cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analysis was completed to estimate the stroke-free survival at 1 year postoperatively. Results: Within the investigational period, 167 patients (85 symptomatic) qualified for study inclusion. Baseline demographics were roughly equivalent, although symptomatic patients were more likely to be female (28.0% vs 9.4%; P < .01). Procedures in symptomatic patients were associated with higher estimated blood loss (41 mL vs 58 mL; P = .04) and operative time (67 minutes vs 75 minutes; P = .06). We did not find an increased incidence of macroscopic debris in the filter of symptomatic patients after stent deployment. For symptomatic patients, we observed a perioperative (30-day) ipsilateral stroke risk of 1.2% (vs 2.4% in asymptomatic patients; P > .99), a myocardial infarction risk of 0% (vs 0%; P > .99), and a mortality risk of 4.9% (vs 0%; P = .06). Most deaths occurred after procedure-related discharge; as such, in-hospital (from index TCAR) mortality in symptomatic patients was 1.2%. The four perioperative deaths observed in our population were secondary to hemorrhagic stroke, acute on chronic congestive heart failure (n = 2), and unknown causes in the last patient. At 1 year after the procedure, 114 patients (54 symptomatic) had available data. In addition to the perioperative risks, in symptomatic patients we observed a rate of reintervention of 0% (vs 0%; P > .99), ipsilateral stroke of 3.7% (vs 0%; P = .22), >50% in-stent restenosis of 1.9% (vs 0%; P = .47), stent thrombosis of 3.7% (vs 0%; P = .22), and all-cause mortality of 13.0% (vs 10.0%; P = .77). Last, no difference was noted with respect to the 1-year stroke-free survival (P = .17) by Kaplan-Meier estimates. Conclusions: In this institutional series of patients undergoing TCAR, we found that symptomatic patients have a similar perioperative risk of stroke and myocardial infarction as asymptomatic patients. However, we did observe a strong statistical trend suggesting a higher mortality risk in symptomatic patients. There was no difference between cohorts with respect to 1-year stroke-free survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2047-2053
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of vascular surgery
Volume72
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • CEA
  • Carotid revascularization
  • ENROUTE
  • Reverse flow
  • Stenting
  • Stroke
  • TCAR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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