Background: Periostin is a matricellular protein belonging to the fasciclin family, playing a role for the pathogenesis of allergic diseases by binding to integrins on cell surfaces. Serum periostin is elevated in various allergic diseases reflecting type 2 inflammation and tissue remodeling so that for allergic diseases, periostin is expected to be a novel biomarker for diagnosis, assessing severity or prognosis, and predicting responsiveness to treatments. We have previously shown that most serum periostin exists in the oligomeric form by intermolecular disulfide bonds. Methods: In this study, we examined how periostin forms a complex in serum, whether the periostin complex in serum is functional, and whether the complex formation interferes with reactivity to anti-periostin Abs. Results: We found that periostin formed a complex with IgA1 at a 1:1 ratio. The periostin in the serum complex contained at least five different isoforms. However, IgA was not essential for the oligomeric formation of periostin in mouse serum or in IgA-lacking serum. The periostin-IgA complex in human serum was functional, sustaining the ability to bind to αVβ3 integrin on cell surfaces. Moreover, periostin formed the complex with IgA broadly, which interferes the binding of the Abs recognizing all of the domains except the R4 domain to periostin. Conclusions: Periostin is a novel member of the IgA-associated molecules. These results are of great potential use to understand the pathological roles of periostin in allergic diseases and, from a practical standpoint, to develop diagnostics or therapeutic agents against periostin.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy