Peripheral mechanisms affecting the lower esophageal sphincter tone

Samer Gawrieh, Reza Shaker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

5 Scopus citations


LES tone is influenced by central and peripheral mechanisms. Peripheral factors influencing the LES tone include inhibitory reflexes originating from the stomach, esophagus, pharynx, and larynx. Although the role of LES relaxation and its associated reflux events induced by gastric distention has been extensively studied, the LES relaxations triggered by stimulation of the aerodigestive tract have only recently been the focus of systematic investigation and have resulted in documentation of the intricate reflex relationship between the upper gastrointestinal tract and the aerodigestive tract.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S21-S33
JournalGastroenterology Clinics of North America
Issue number4 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Dec 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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