Perspectives on testicular sex cord–stromal tumors and those composed of both germ cells and sex cord–stromal derivatives with a comparison to corresponding ovarian neoplasms

Lawrence M. Roth, Bingjian Lyu, Liang Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sex cord–stromal tumors (SCSTs) are the second most frequent category of testicular neoplasms, accounting for approximately 2% to 5% of cases. Both genetic and epigenetic factors account for the differences in frequency and histologic composition between testicular and ovarian SCSTs. For example, large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor and intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia occur in the testis but have not been described in the ovary. In this article, we discuss recently described diagnostic entities as well as inconsistencies in nomenclature used in the recent World Health Organization classifications of SCSTs in the testis and ovary. We also thoroughly review the topic of neoplasms composed of both germ cells and sex cord derivatives with an emphasis on controversial aspects. These include “dissecting gonadoblastoma” and testicular mixed germ cell–sex cord stromal tumor (MGC-SCST). The former is a recently described variant of gonadoblastoma that sometimes is an immediate precursor of germinoma in the dysgenetic gonads of patients with a disorder of sex development. Although the relationship of dissecting gonadoblastoma to the previously described undifferentiated gonadal tissue is complex and not entirely resolved, we believe that it is preferable to continue to use the term undifferentiated gonadal tissue for those cases that are not neoplastic and are considered to be the precursor of classical gonadoblastoma. Although the existence of testicular MGC-SCST has been challenged, the most recent evidence supports its existence; however, testicular MGC-SCST differs significantly from ovarian examples due to both genetic and epigenetic factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalHuman pathology
Volume65
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2017

Keywords

  • Gonadoblastoma
  • Mixed germ cell–sex cord stromal tumor
  • Ovary
  • Sex cord–stromal tumors
  • Testis
  • Tumorigenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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