We conducted a phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine with high-dose busulfan followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with high-risk and refractory acute leukemia. Patients received intravenous busulfan 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h on days -6 to -3 and clofarabine 30-60 mg/m(2) per day on days -6 to -2. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis included sirolimus plus tacrolimus (days -2 to +180). A total of 15 patients, median age 48 (30-58) years, with acute leukemia that was relapsed and refractory (n=8), primary refractory (n=6), or in CR2 (n=1), were treated at four clofarabine dose levels: 30 (n=3), 40 (n=3), 50 (n=3) and 60 mg/m(2) per day (n=6) with busulfan. All engrafted, and the MTD was not reached. Grades 3-4 non-hematological toxicities included vomiting (n=3), mucositis (n=9), hand-foot syndrome (n=1), acute renal failure (n=1) and reversible elevation of aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (n=10). The 1-year event-free survival was 53% (95% confidence interval: 33-86%), and the 1-year overall survival was 60% (95% confidence interval: 40-91%). Given the good tolerability and promising results, we recommend clofarabine 60 mg/m(2) per day × 5 days as a phase II dose in combination with busulfan (12.8 mg per kg total dose) for further study as a myeloablative regimen for allogeneic SCT for high-risk acute leukemia.
- Acute leukemia
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research