Phosphorylation of RNA helicase a by DNA-dependent protein kinase is indispensable for expression of the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein in multidrag-resistant human leukemia cells

Xiaoling Zhong, Ahmad Safa

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer frequently involves overexpression of the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter which severely impedes the efficacy of chemotherapy. Because intensive efforts to identify therapeutics that reverse MDR by inhibiting the drug transport activity of P-gp have not yet met with success, we have focused on the alternative strategy of targeting MDR1 promoter activation to knockdown P-gp expression in cancer cells. We recently identified RNA helicase A (RHA) inhibition as a rational strategy to downregulate P-gp in leukemia cells by showing that RHA RNAi knockdown abrogated P-gp expression in MDR variants of human leukemia HL-60 cells. In that report, we also demonstrated that RHA activated the MDR1 promoter in the MDR variant cells but not in the drug-sensitive counterpart. This led us to hypothesize that P-gp induction by RHA required cooperation with another factor present only in the MDR variants. Here, we identify the RHA cooperating factor as DNA-PK catalytic subunit (cs), and we show that DNA-PKcs resides with RHA at the MDR1 promoter in a multiprotein complex. Furthermore, targeted DNA-PKcs inhibition abrogated P-gp expression in the MDR variant cells. We demonstrate that constitutive multisite RHA phosphorylation producing retarded migration in SDS-PAGE is catalyzed by DNA-PKcs in the MDR variants, and does not occur in the parental cells, which are DNA-PKcs deficient. The indispensable role played by DNA-PK in P-gp overexpression in MDR leukemia cells in this report identifies targeted DNA-PK inhibition as a rational strategy to reverse drug resistance in cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5766-5775
Number of pages10
JournalBiochemistry
Volume46
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2007

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DNA-Activated Protein Kinase
RNA Helicases
Phosphorylation
Multiple Drug Resistance
P-Glycoprotein
Leukemia
Genes
Gene Expression
DNA
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Multiprotein Complexes
Neoplasms
Chemotherapy
HL-60 Cells
RNA Interference
Drug Resistance
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Catalytic Domain
Down-Regulation
Chemical activation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Phosphorylation of RNA helicase a by DNA-dependent protein kinase is indispensable for expression of the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein in multidrag-resistant human leukemia cells",
abstract = "Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer frequently involves overexpression of the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter which severely impedes the efficacy of chemotherapy. Because intensive efforts to identify therapeutics that reverse MDR by inhibiting the drug transport activity of P-gp have not yet met with success, we have focused on the alternative strategy of targeting MDR1 promoter activation to knockdown P-gp expression in cancer cells. We recently identified RNA helicase A (RHA) inhibition as a rational strategy to downregulate P-gp in leukemia cells by showing that RHA RNAi knockdown abrogated P-gp expression in MDR variants of human leukemia HL-60 cells. In that report, we also demonstrated that RHA activated the MDR1 promoter in the MDR variant cells but not in the drug-sensitive counterpart. This led us to hypothesize that P-gp induction by RHA required cooperation with another factor present only in the MDR variants. Here, we identify the RHA cooperating factor as DNA-PK catalytic subunit (cs), and we show that DNA-PKcs resides with RHA at the MDR1 promoter in a multiprotein complex. Furthermore, targeted DNA-PKcs inhibition abrogated P-gp expression in the MDR variant cells. We demonstrate that constitutive multisite RHA phosphorylation producing retarded migration in SDS-PAGE is catalyzed by DNA-PKcs in the MDR variants, and does not occur in the parental cells, which are DNA-PKcs deficient. The indispensable role played by DNA-PK in P-gp overexpression in MDR leukemia cells in this report identifies targeted DNA-PK inhibition as a rational strategy to reverse drug resistance in cancer.",
author = "Xiaoling Zhong and Ahmad Safa",
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T1 - Phosphorylation of RNA helicase a by DNA-dependent protein kinase is indispensable for expression of the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein in multidrag-resistant human leukemia cells

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AU - Safa, Ahmad

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N2 - Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer frequently involves overexpression of the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter which severely impedes the efficacy of chemotherapy. Because intensive efforts to identify therapeutics that reverse MDR by inhibiting the drug transport activity of P-gp have not yet met with success, we have focused on the alternative strategy of targeting MDR1 promoter activation to knockdown P-gp expression in cancer cells. We recently identified RNA helicase A (RHA) inhibition as a rational strategy to downregulate P-gp in leukemia cells by showing that RHA RNAi knockdown abrogated P-gp expression in MDR variants of human leukemia HL-60 cells. In that report, we also demonstrated that RHA activated the MDR1 promoter in the MDR variant cells but not in the drug-sensitive counterpart. This led us to hypothesize that P-gp induction by RHA required cooperation with another factor present only in the MDR variants. Here, we identify the RHA cooperating factor as DNA-PK catalytic subunit (cs), and we show that DNA-PKcs resides with RHA at the MDR1 promoter in a multiprotein complex. Furthermore, targeted DNA-PKcs inhibition abrogated P-gp expression in the MDR variant cells. We demonstrate that constitutive multisite RHA phosphorylation producing retarded migration in SDS-PAGE is catalyzed by DNA-PKcs in the MDR variants, and does not occur in the parental cells, which are DNA-PKcs deficient. The indispensable role played by DNA-PK in P-gp overexpression in MDR leukemia cells in this report identifies targeted DNA-PK inhibition as a rational strategy to reverse drug resistance in cancer.

AB - Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer frequently involves overexpression of the MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter which severely impedes the efficacy of chemotherapy. Because intensive efforts to identify therapeutics that reverse MDR by inhibiting the drug transport activity of P-gp have not yet met with success, we have focused on the alternative strategy of targeting MDR1 promoter activation to knockdown P-gp expression in cancer cells. We recently identified RNA helicase A (RHA) inhibition as a rational strategy to downregulate P-gp in leukemia cells by showing that RHA RNAi knockdown abrogated P-gp expression in MDR variants of human leukemia HL-60 cells. In that report, we also demonstrated that RHA activated the MDR1 promoter in the MDR variant cells but not in the drug-sensitive counterpart. This led us to hypothesize that P-gp induction by RHA required cooperation with another factor present only in the MDR variants. Here, we identify the RHA cooperating factor as DNA-PK catalytic subunit (cs), and we show that DNA-PKcs resides with RHA at the MDR1 promoter in a multiprotein complex. Furthermore, targeted DNA-PKcs inhibition abrogated P-gp expression in the MDR variant cells. We demonstrate that constitutive multisite RHA phosphorylation producing retarded migration in SDS-PAGE is catalyzed by DNA-PKcs in the MDR variants, and does not occur in the parental cells, which are DNA-PKcs deficient. The indispensable role played by DNA-PK in P-gp overexpression in MDR leukemia cells in this report identifies targeted DNA-PK inhibition as a rational strategy to reverse drug resistance in cancer.

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