Phylogeny of the stapes prosthesis

Michael H. Fritsch, Ilka C. Naumann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

16 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To create the first ever stapes prosthesis phylogenetic tree for the evolution of the stapes prosthesis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective literature review, personal interviews. SETTING: University Medical Center. PATIENT: Not applicable. INTERVENTION: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Construction of a stapes prosthesis phylogenetic tree with branches capable of including all stapes prostheses. RESULTS: One hundred five different stapes prostheses were reviewed, starting with the first-ever prosthesis used in the first stapedectomy and continuing up to the present time. The stapes prosthesis family tree contains 4 main branches that allow for categorization of all the commercial prostheses currently used. Many examples of atavistic prostheses, single surgeon use, and dead-end characteristics exist. CONCLUSION: An overview of the complicated phylogenetic tree for stapes prostheses gives great perspective to the history of stapedectomy and insights into many characteristics that are useful for designing new stapes prostheses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-415
Number of pages9
JournalOtology and Neurotology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 1 2008


  • Design
  • Hearing loss
  • Otosclerosis
  • Prosthesis
  • Stapes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Neuroscience(all)

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