Background: Little is known about physicians' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine recommendations for males while the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' (ACIP) permissive guidelines for male vaccination were in effect. The purpose of this study was to examine and explore factors associated with U.S. physicians' HPV vaccine recommendations to early (ages 11-12), middle (13-17), and late adolescent/young adult (18-26) males. Methods: Nationally representative samples of family physicians and pediatricians were selected in 2011 (n = 1,219). Physicians reported the frequency with which they recommended HPV vaccine to male patients ["always" (>75% of the time) vs. other] for each age group. Statistically significant predictors of vaccine recommendation were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of physicians reporting they "always" recommended HPV vaccination for males was 10.8% for ages 11 to 12, 12.9% for ages 13 to 17, and 13.2% for ages 18 to 26. Pediatrician specialty and selfreported early adoption of new vaccines were significantly associated with recommendation for all patient age groups. In addition, physician race and patient payment method were associated with physician recommendations to patients ages 11 to 12, and patient race was associated with recommendations to ages 13 to 17 and 18 to 26. Conclusions: Less than 15% of physicians surveyed reported "always" recommending HPV vaccine to male patients following national guidelines for permissive vaccination. Vaccine financing may have affected physicians' vaccine recommendations. Impact: If these recommendation practices continue following the ACIP's routine recommendation for males in October 2011, then interventions designed to increase recommendations should target family physicians and possibly use early adopters to encourage support of HPV vaccination guidelines.
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