Physicochemical and biological properties of novel chlorhexidine-loaded nanotube-modified dentin adhesive

Sabrina A. Feitosa, Jadesada Palasuk, Saulo Geraldeli, Lester Jack Windsor, Marco C. Bottino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A commercially available three-step (etch-and-rinse) adhesive was modified by adding chlorhexidine (CHX)-loaded nanotubes (Halloysite®, HNT) at two concentrations (CHX10% and CHX20%). The experimental groups were: SBMP (unmodified adhesive, control), HNT (SBMP modified with HNT), CHX10 (SBMP modified with HNT loaded with CHX10%), and CHX20 (SBMP modified with HNT loaded with CHX20%). Changes in the degree of conversion (DC%), Knoop hardness (KHN), water sorption (WS), solubility (SL), antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and anti-matrix metalloproteinase [MMP-1] activity (collagenase-I) were evaluated. In regards to DC%, two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test revealed that only the factor “adhesive” was statistically significant (p < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in DC% when 20 s light-curing was used (p > 0.05). For Knoop microhardness, one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's test showed statistically significant differences when comparing HNT (20.82 ± 1.65) and CHX20% (21.71 ± 2.83) with the SBMP and CHX10% groups. All adhesives presented similar WS and cytocompatibility. The CHX-loaded nanotube-modified adhesive released enough CHX to inhibit the growth of S. mutans and L. casei. Adhesive eluates were not able to effectively inhibit MMP-1 activity. The evaluation of higher CHX concentrations might be necessary to provide an effective and predictable MMP inhibition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)868-875
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • adhesive
  • chlorhexidine
  • dentin
  • halloysite
  • matrix metalloproteinase
  • nanotubes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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