Objectives: HIV-associated brain injury persists despite combination antiretroviral therapy, but contributing factors remain poorly understood. We postulated that inflammation-associated biomarkers will be associated with cerebral injury on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in chronically HIV-infected subjects. Methods: Five biomarkers were measured in 197 HIV-infected subjects: soluble CD14, MCP-1, IP-10, MIP-1β, and fractalkine. Levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho), Myoinositol (MI), Glutamate + Glutamine (Glx), and Creatine (Cr) were acquired in the midfrontal cortex (MFC), frontal white matter, and basal ganglia (BG). Predictive models were built through linear regression, and the best models were chosen using the Akaike Information Criterion. Results: Increases in plasma or CSF MCP-1 were associated with lower NAA/Cr in the MFC and BG, whereas metabolite changes in the frontal white matter for NAA/Cr, GlxCr, and Cho/Cr were explained almost exclusively by a single factor, sCD14. Plasma and CSF levels of this factor were also significantly associated with Glx/Cr in MFC and BG. Higher CSF FKN was associated with higher NAA/Cr in BG. Best predictors for higher Cho/Cr in BG and MFC were CSF sCD14 and CSF MIP-1β. Plasma and CSF IP-10 were only associated with Cho/Cr in MFC. Of the 3 models that simultaneously accounted for both plasma and CSF, there were more associations between CSF biomarkers and magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites. Conclusions: Markers of inflammation and immune activation, in particular MCP-1 and sCD14, predominantly reflecting CNS sources, contribute to the persistence of brain injury in a metabolite and region-dependent manner in chronically HIV-infected patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy.
- HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder
- cerebrospinal fluid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)