The lower gastrointestinal tract (LGI) and liver are the GVHD target organs most associated with treatment failure and nonrelapse mortality. We recently identified regenerating islet-derived 3-α (REG3α) as a plasma biomarker of LGI GVHD. We compared REG3α with 2 previously reported GI and liver GVHD diagnostic biomarkers, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and cytokeratin fragment 18, in 954 hematopoietic cell transplantation patients. All 3 biomarkers were significantly elevated in LGI GVHD compared with non-GVHD diarrhea; REG3α discerned LGI GVHD from non-GVHD diarrhea better than HGF and cytokeratin fragment 18. Although all 3 biomarkers predicted nonresponse to therapy at day 28 in LGI GVHD patients, only REG3α and HGF concentrations predicted 1-year nonrelapse mortality (P = .01 and P = .02, respectively). Liver GVHD without GI involvement at GVHD onset and non-GVHD liver complications were uncommon; all 3 biomarkers were elevated in liver GVHD, but did not distinguish GVHD from other causes of hyperbilirubinemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology