Objectives: To investigate whether polymorphisms in genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage, modulate, and/or interact with antioxidants to influence prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Central Arkansas. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a role in prostate carcinogenesis. Methods: Cases (n = 193) included men aged 40-80 years, diagnosed with prostate cancer in 3 major hospitals in 1998-2003, and controls (n = 197) were matched to cases by age, race, and county of residence. Results: After adjustment for confounders, subjects who were heterozygous or homozygous for the variant allele of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism appeared to experience a lower risk of prostate cancer than those who were homozygous for the wild-type allele (odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]): 0.72 (0.46-1.10)]. Conversely, a significant increased risk was observed for individuals who carried 1 or 2 copies of the variant allele of the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism, compared with those who only harbored the wild-type allele (OR [95% CI]: 1.56 [1.01-2.45]). The above-mentioned associations were generally more pronounced among subjects with low plasma carotenoids or α-tocopherol (<median). Among subjects who had low plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin (<73 μg/L), possession of at least 1 copy of the XRCC1 399Gln allele conferred a greater than 2-fold elevated risk (OR [95% CI]: 2.64 [1.40-5.07]). Conclusions: Our study offers preliminary but intriguing data suggesting that variability in the capacity of repairing oxidative DNA damage influences susceptibility to prostate cancer and that these effects are modified by antioxidants.
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