Polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, plasma antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk

Jianjun Zhang, Ishwori B. Dhakal, Nicholas P. Lang, Fred F. Kadlubar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Scopus citations


Background: Presence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus and chronic inflammation in prostate tumor suggests that inflammation plays a role in prostate cancer etiology. This study investigated whether variants in inflammatory genes act alone or interact with plasma antioxidants to influence prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Central Arkansas. Methods: Cases (n = 193) were men, aged 40-80, diagnosed with prostate cancer in three major hospitals in 1998-2003, and controls (n = 197) were matched to cases by age, race, and county of residence. Results: After adjustment for confounders, polymorphisms in COX-2 (rs689466) and IL-8 (rs4073) were not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. However, apparent interactions were observed between these genetic variants and plasma antioxidants on the risk of this malignancy. The protective effect of the mutant allele of the COX-2 polymorphism was more pronounced among subjects with high plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, or selenium (≥median) [e.g., OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.15, 0.86) (AG/GG vs. AA) for β-cryptoxanthin]. Conversely, the promoting effect of the variant allele of the IL-8 polymorphism was more remarkable in subjects with low plasma levels of Lutein/zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene (<median) [e.g., OR (95% CI): 2.44 (1.08, 5.75) (AT/TT vs. AA) for β-carotene]. Conclusions: We found that sequence variants in inflammatory genes interact with plasma antioxidants to modulate prostate cancer risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1437-1444
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2010



  • Antioxidants
  • Inflammatory gene
  • Oxidative stress
  • Polymorphism
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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