A weakness of many animal models of diabetes mellitus is the failure to use insulin therapy, which typically results in severe body wasting. Data collected from such studies must be interpreted cautiously to separate the effects of hyperglycemia from those of starvation. We provide several algorithms that were used by us in two long-term (20-week) experiments in which hyperglycemia (300 to 400 mg/dl), dyslipidemia (cholesterol [280 to 405 mg/dl] and triglycerides [55 to 106 mg/dl] concentrations), and positive energy balance were maintained in swine. Yucatan miniature swine groups included control, alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus plus diet-induced dyslipidemia, and exercise-trained diabetic dyslipidemic pigs. The algorithms were developed for the porcine model because of several similarities to humans, including: cardiac anatomy and physiology, propensity for sedentary behavior, and metabolism of dietary carbohydrates and lipids. Acute toxic effects of alloxan (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, nephrotoxicosis) were minimized by preventive fluid loading and by use of algorithms in which insulin, food, and fluid therapy were administered. Long-term insulin and food maintenance algorithms elicited normal body weight gain in all three diabetic groups (lean experiment) and threefold greater body weight gain in pigs of an obesity experiment. Exercise-trained pigs of both experiments manifested significantly increased work performance and did not experience medical complications. We conclude that these algorithms can be used in swine, or similar algorithms can be developed for other animal species to maintain hyperglycemia and/or dyslipidemia, while avoiding diabetes-induced wasting. Importantly, animal models of diabetes mellitus that maintain positive energy balance and poor glycemic control provide a marked improvement over other models by more closely mimicking the human presentation of diabetes mellitus.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Feb 1 2003|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)