Post hoc analyses of surrogate markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes in a digitally supported continuous care intervention: An open-label, non-randomised controlled study

Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Shaminie J. Athinarayanan, Rebecca N. Adams, Sarah J. Hallberg, Nasir H. Bhanpuri, Amy L. McKenzie, Wayne W. Campbell, James P. McCarter, Stephen D. Phinney, Jeff S. Volek, Naga Chalasani

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5 Scopus citations


Objective One year of comprehensive continuous care intervention (CCI) through nutritional ketosis improves glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c), body weight and liver enzymes among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we report the effect of the CCI on surrogate scores of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis. Methods This was a non-randomised longitudinal study, including adults with T2D who were self-enrolled to the CCI (n=262) or to receive usual care (UC, n=87) during 1 year. An NAFLD liver fat score (N-LFS) >-0.640 defined the presence of fatty liver. An NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) of >0.675 identified subjects with advanced fibrosis. Changes in N-LFS and NFS at 1 year were the main endpoints. Results At baseline, NAFLD was present in 95% of patients in the CCI and 90% of patients in the UC. At 1 year, weight loss of ≥5% was achieved in 79% of patients in the CCI versus 19% of patients in UC (p<0.001). N-LFS mean score was reduced in the CCI group (-1.95±0.22, p<0.001), whereas it was not changed in the UC (0.47±0.41, p=0.26) (CCI vs UC, p<0.001). NFS was reduced in the CCI group (-0.65±0.06, p<0.001) compared with UC (0.26±0.11, p=0.02) (p<0.001 between two groups). In the CCI group, the percentage of individuals with a low probability of advanced fibrosis increased from 18% at baseline to 33% at 1 year (p<0.001). Conclusions One year of a digitally supported CCI significantly improved surrogates of NAFLD and advanced fibrosis in patients with T2D. Trial registration number NCT02519309; Results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number023597
JournalBMJ open
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019



  • ketogenic diet
  • liver fibrosis
  • non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • type 2 diabetes
  • very low carb diet
  • weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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