Post-Inpatient Brain Injury Rehabilitation Outcomes: Report from the National OutcomeInfo Database

James F. Malec, Jacob Kean

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This study examined outcomes for intensive residential and outpatient/community-based post-inpatient brain injury rehabilitation (PBIR) programs compared with supported living programs. The goal of supported living programs was stable functioning (no change). Data were obtained for a large cohort of adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) from the OutcomeInfo national database, a web-based database system developed through National Institutes of Health (NIH) Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) funding for monitoring progress and outcomes in PBIR programs primarily with the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4). Rasch-derived MPAI-4 measures for cases from 2008 to 2014 from 9 provider organizations offering programs in 23 facilities throughout the United States were examined. Controlling for age at injury, time in program, and time since injury on admission (chronicity), both intensive residential (n = 205) and outpatient/community-based (n = 2781) programs resulted in significant (approximately 1 standard deviation [SD]) functional improvement on the MPAI-4 Total Score compared with supported living (n = 101) programs (F = 18.184, p < 0.001). Intensive outpatient/community-based programs showed greater improvements on MPAI-4 Ability (F = 14.135, p < 0.001), Adjustment (F = 12.939, p < 0.001), and Participation (F = 16.679, p < 0.001) indices than supported living programs; whereas, intensive residential programs showed improvement primarily in Adjustment and Participation. Age at injury and time in program had small effects on outcome; the effect of chronicity was small to moderate. Examination of more chronic cases (>1 year post-injury) showed significant, but smaller (approximately 0.5 SD) change on the MPAI-4 relative to supported living programs (F = 17.562, p < 0.001). Results indicate that intensive residential and outpatient/community-based PIBR programs result in substantial positive functional changes moderated by chronicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1371-1379
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of neurotrauma
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 15 2016


  • Adult brain injury
  • Outcome measures
  • Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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