Postischemic inflammatory syndrome: A critical mechanism of progression in diabetic nephropathy

Katherine Kelly, James L. Burford, Jesus Dominguez

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36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Diabetes is a major epidemic, and diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Two critical components of diabetic nephropathy are persistent inflammation and chronic renal ischemia from widespread vasculopathy. Moreover, acute ischemic renal injury is common in diabetes, potentially causing chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia accelerates nephropathy in diabetes by activating proinflammatory pathways. Lean and obese-diabetic ZS rats (F1 hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive heart failure and Zucker fatty diabetic rats) were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia or sham surgery before the onset of proteinuria. The postischemic state in rats with obesity-diabetes was characterized by progressive chronic renal failure, increased proteinuria, and renal expression of proinflammatory mediators. Leukocyte number in obese-diabetic rat kidney was markedly increased for months after ischemia. Intrarenal blood flow velocity was decreased after ischemia in lean control and obesediabetic rats, although it recovered in lean rats. At 2 mo after ischemia, blood flow velocity decreased further in sham-surgery and postischemia obese-diabetic rats, so that RBC flow velocity was only 39% of control in the obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. In addition, microvascular density remained depressed at 2 mo in kidneys of obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. Abnormal microvascular permeability and increases in interstitial fibrosis and apoptotic renal cell death were also more pronounced after ischemia in obese-diabetic rats. These data support the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia in obesity-diabetes severely aggravates chronic inflammation and vasculopathy, creating a self-perpetuating postischemia inflammatory syndrome, which accelerates renal failure.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology
Volume297
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2009

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Diabetic Nephropathies
Ischemia
Kidney
Chronic Kidney Failure
Blood Flow Velocity
Proteinuria
Obesity
Inflammation
Capillary Permeability
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Leukocyte Count
Acute Kidney Injury
Renal Insufficiency
Fibrosis
Cell Death
Heart Failure

Keywords

  • Acute kidney failure
  • Apoptosis
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Renal fibrosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Urology

Cite this

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abstract = "Diabetes is a major epidemic, and diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Two critical components of diabetic nephropathy are persistent inflammation and chronic renal ischemia from widespread vasculopathy. Moreover, acute ischemic renal injury is common in diabetes, potentially causing chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia accelerates nephropathy in diabetes by activating proinflammatory pathways. Lean and obese-diabetic ZS rats (F1 hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive heart failure and Zucker fatty diabetic rats) were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia or sham surgery before the onset of proteinuria. The postischemic state in rats with obesity-diabetes was characterized by progressive chronic renal failure, increased proteinuria, and renal expression of proinflammatory mediators. Leukocyte number in obese-diabetic rat kidney was markedly increased for months after ischemia. Intrarenal blood flow velocity was decreased after ischemia in lean control and obesediabetic rats, although it recovered in lean rats. At 2 mo after ischemia, blood flow velocity decreased further in sham-surgery and postischemia obese-diabetic rats, so that RBC flow velocity was only 39{\%} of control in the obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. In addition, microvascular density remained depressed at 2 mo in kidneys of obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. Abnormal microvascular permeability and increases in interstitial fibrosis and apoptotic renal cell death were also more pronounced after ischemia in obese-diabetic rats. These data support the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia in obesity-diabetes severely aggravates chronic inflammation and vasculopathy, creating a self-perpetuating postischemia inflammatory syndrome, which accelerates renal failure.",
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AU - Burford, James L.

AU - Dominguez, Jesus

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N2 - Diabetes is a major epidemic, and diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Two critical components of diabetic nephropathy are persistent inflammation and chronic renal ischemia from widespread vasculopathy. Moreover, acute ischemic renal injury is common in diabetes, potentially causing chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia accelerates nephropathy in diabetes by activating proinflammatory pathways. Lean and obese-diabetic ZS rats (F1 hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive heart failure and Zucker fatty diabetic rats) were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia or sham surgery before the onset of proteinuria. The postischemic state in rats with obesity-diabetes was characterized by progressive chronic renal failure, increased proteinuria, and renal expression of proinflammatory mediators. Leukocyte number in obese-diabetic rat kidney was markedly increased for months after ischemia. Intrarenal blood flow velocity was decreased after ischemia in lean control and obesediabetic rats, although it recovered in lean rats. At 2 mo after ischemia, blood flow velocity decreased further in sham-surgery and postischemia obese-diabetic rats, so that RBC flow velocity was only 39% of control in the obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. In addition, microvascular density remained depressed at 2 mo in kidneys of obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. Abnormal microvascular permeability and increases in interstitial fibrosis and apoptotic renal cell death were also more pronounced after ischemia in obese-diabetic rats. These data support the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia in obesity-diabetes severely aggravates chronic inflammation and vasculopathy, creating a self-perpetuating postischemia inflammatory syndrome, which accelerates renal failure.

AB - Diabetes is a major epidemic, and diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Two critical components of diabetic nephropathy are persistent inflammation and chronic renal ischemia from widespread vasculopathy. Moreover, acute ischemic renal injury is common in diabetes, potentially causing chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia accelerates nephropathy in diabetes by activating proinflammatory pathways. Lean and obese-diabetic ZS rats (F1 hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive heart failure and Zucker fatty diabetic rats) were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia or sham surgery before the onset of proteinuria. The postischemic state in rats with obesity-diabetes was characterized by progressive chronic renal failure, increased proteinuria, and renal expression of proinflammatory mediators. Leukocyte number in obese-diabetic rat kidney was markedly increased for months after ischemia. Intrarenal blood flow velocity was decreased after ischemia in lean control and obesediabetic rats, although it recovered in lean rats. At 2 mo after ischemia, blood flow velocity decreased further in sham-surgery and postischemia obese-diabetic rats, so that RBC flow velocity was only 39% of control in the obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. In addition, microvascular density remained depressed at 2 mo in kidneys of obese-diabetic rats after ischemia. Abnormal microvascular permeability and increases in interstitial fibrosis and apoptotic renal cell death were also more pronounced after ischemia in obese-diabetic rats. These data support the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia in obesity-diabetes severely aggravates chronic inflammation and vasculopathy, creating a self-perpetuating postischemia inflammatory syndrome, which accelerates renal failure.

KW - Acute kidney failure

KW - Apoptosis

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