PURPOSE: To test the safety and efficacy of using the Arrow-Trerotola percutaneous thrombolytic device (PTD) for treating deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An established canine model of iliocaval subacute thrombosis was used. Thrombosis was caused by balloon occlusion of the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) for 7 (n = 12), 10 (n = 1), or 17 (n = 1) days. Treatment was performed with use of an 8-F, over-the-wire (0.035-inch) PTD with a 15-mm-diameter basket. The procedure was performed without IVC filtration. Two acute procedures were performed and 12 procedures were intended as survival procedures with 30-day follow-up. Pulmonary arteriography, blood gases, and pulmonary artery pressure measurement were performed before and after the procedure, and at follow-up. The animals were killed after the follow-up procedure and their IVC, iliac veins, and lungs were removed and examined histologically. Heparin was used intraprocedurally but thrombolytic agents were not used. Low-molecular-weight heparin was given daily after the procedure. RESULTS: Thrombolysis was completely (12 of 13) or partially (one of 13) successful in all animals in the 7- and 10-day groups, but was unsuccessful in the animal in the 17-day group (n = 1). Variable amounts of segmental and subsegmental pulmonary emboli were found in all animals with small increases in pulmonary artery pressure. Two animals died within 6 days of the procedure, possibly due to pulmonary emboli. At 30-day follow-up, IVC patency was preserved in 80% (eight of 10) of animals, but significant caval narrowing due to intimal hyperplasia was noted at follow-up. All pulmonary emboli had resolved angiographically at follow-up, but evidence of recanalized or resolving pulmonary thromboemboli was found in seven of the 12 surviving animals. No acute vascular injury (eg, perforation) occurred. CONCLUSION: The modified PTD used in this study is effective in treating subacute (<7 days old) venous thrombosis, but temporary filtration will probably be necessary to keep pulmonary emboli to a minimum during the procedure. The 30-day patency is encouraging. The results in this animal model indicate that the Arrow-Trerotola PTD may be useful in the percutaneous treatment of DVT in humans.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine