Preconditioning: Gender effects

Jeffrey M. Pitcher, Meijing Wang, Ben M. Tsai, Ajay Kher, Mark W. Turrentine, John W. Brown, Daniel R. Meldrum

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Preconditioning is injury induced protection from subsequent injury. During preconditioning protective cellular responses to injury are up regulated resulting in acute and delayed defense against further damage. Several studies indicate that females experience a protective advantage after acute insult compared to males. Despite evidence of gender differences in acute injury, relatively few studies have evaluated whether there are sex differences in preconditioning. Variations in patients' pre-morbid preconditioning status may explain outcome variations that are not apparent in small animal studies. This review discusses the differences in response to acute injury experienced by males and females, the basic mechanisms of preconditioning, and the sex differences in the mechanisms of preconditioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)202-220
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Acute injury
  • Inflammation
  • Sex
  • Tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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